Day 1 :
St. Cloud State University, USA
Keynote: The effect of Garcinia kola seed extract on the development of disease in an autoimmune mouse model of type-1 diabetes
Time : 10:00-10:45
Marina Cetkovic-Cvrlje is a Professor of Immunology in the Department of Biology, Saint Cloud State University, USA. She has devoted the entire career to autoimmune type-1 diabetes (T1D) research. Since joining SCSU, she has established a Laboratory for Immunology, providing research opportunities for numerous undergraduate and graduate students to study effects of various environmental compounds on the development of autoimmune diabetes in murine models of T1D. She has been teaching Immunology, Pathophysiology and Public Health Controversies and has been a strong advocate for raising awareness about effects of environmental compounds on T1D.
Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is an insulin-dependent autoimmune disease characterized by T-cell mediated autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. Garcinia kola Heckel (GK), or bitter kola, is a medicinal plant found in Central and Western Africa, which seeds’ extract (GKE) has been proposed to exhibit anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic properties. Considering that GKE has never been studied in the context of T1D and its enormous relevance in folkloric medicine, we aimed to define whether GKE exhibits anti-diabetic properties and affects T-cells by its anticipated anti-inflammatory action. Thus, it is hypothesized that GKE treatment would prevent development and reduce the severity of T1D in an experimental mouse model, low-dose Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced autoimmune T1D, by affecting pathogenic T-cells. Aqueous- and ethanol-based GKE were extracted and administered orally (via drinking water) to C57BL/6 male mice in a dose of 100 mg/kg/day from 7 to 12 weeks of age. At 8 weeks of age, T1D was chemically induced by five consecutive injections of 40 mg/kg STZ. Body weights and blood glucose levels were measured before STZ administration and bi-weekly from day 8 until day 29 post first STZ injection. GKE mechanisms of action in the context of T-cells, such as the effect of GKE on T-cell populations/subpopulations and T-cell function (proliferation assays and cytokine profiles), was studied as well at two endpoints during disease development. The results showed that GKE treatment did not reduce body weights and glycaemia; even a trend of elevated body weights and hyperglycemia levels was observed in GKE-treated mice. Surprisingly, while decreasing T-cell populations/subpopulations, GKE exposure significantly increased T1D incidence in STZ-treated mice. In conclusion, this study, as the first examination of the anti-diabetogenic potential of GKE in T1D, did not confirm its potential in a reduction of hyperglycemia and prevention of T1D.
Kerala University of Health Sciences, India
Jeena N Janardhanan is a Doctor (Ayurveda) specialized in ENT and Ophthalmology. She has been in the field of Research, Academics as well as Administration for the past 14 years. She is presently an Associate Professor and HOD at Vaidyaratnam P S Varier Ayurveda College, Kerala University of Health Sciences, India. She has been in the field of Ayurveda, treating patients for the past 20 years.
Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of chronic uncontrolled diabetes. The occurrence of diabetes is on a rise, so are its complications. Retinopathy counts as the second most common cause for blindness, around the globe. Features of retinopathy include microaneurysms of retinal capillaries, hemorrhage, hard exudates and cotton wool spots. Although, retinopathy is a chronic condition, acute visual loss sometimes occurs due to sudden bleeding into vitreous or bleeding in and around macula. Western medicine usually adopts laser photocoagulation in such conditions. Since it damages the retina to a certain extent, it is usually avoided in cases were macula is involved. Such acute visual loss cases due to hemorrhage are treated with a special procedure called Sirodhara (pouring of medicated water, oil, milk etc., on the forehead in a continuous stream). The herbal medicines used are Madhuca indica, Santalum album, Vetiveria zizanoides, Emblica officinalis, Symplocos racemosa along with lac (resinous material secreted by Laccifer lacca insect). Milk is specially prepared with these drugs and used daily as a continuous stream on forehead for one hour for a continuous period of 7 days. 15 patients were included in this clinical trial till date. Ophthalmoscopy and visual acuity tested before and after the treatment. In all the patients, hypoglycemic drugs were given along with the procedure. The hemorrhage was seen well controlled and completely absorbed in ophthalmoscopy. The visual acuity also improved remarkably.